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European Old Master Drawings from the Bruges Print Roomedited by VIRGINIE D’HAENEForeword Dirk De fauw, Nico Blontrock, Till-Holger Borchert…
European Old Master Drawings from the Bruges Print Roomedited by VIRGINIE D’HAENEForeword Dirk De fauw, Nico Blontrock, Till-Holger Borchert Introduction to the catalogue Virginie D’haene Note to the reader6 8 19Catalogue Artists included in the catalogue, ordered alphabetically Anonymous – no. 7 Anonymous, Dutch or Flemish – no. 26 Anonymous, Flemish – no. 17 Balen, Hendrick van – no. 20 Bonnet, Sylvain – no. 33 Callot, Jacques – no. 23 Crussens, Anthonie – no. 19 Deyster, Louis de – no. 41 Diepenbeeck, Abraham van – no. 32 Dusart, Cornelis – no. 45 Flinck, Govert – no. 28 Floris, Frans – no. 2 Francken, Ambrosius I – no. 14 Furini, Francesco (circle of ) – no. 29 Gheyn, Jacques II de (circle of ) – no. 25 Guerra, Giovanni – nos. 10-13 Jode, Pieter I de (workshop of ) – no. 21 Jode, Pieter I de (after) – no. 22 Lintelo, Johan van – no. 24 Maes, Godfried – nos. 38-39 Maes, Godfried (attributed to) – no. 40 Master of the Clinging Draperies (copy) – no. 1 Master of the Hermitage Sketchbook – no. 16 Master of the Prodigal Son (workshop copy) – no. 4 Mieris, Jan van – nos. 42-43448 124 84 98 154 112 94 182 150 200 132 24 70 136 120 60 104 106 116 174 178 20 80 34 188Mignard, Pierre – no. 34 Noort, Lambert van – no. 6 Primaticcio, Francesco (workshop copy) – no. 3 Quellinus, Jan Erasmus – no. 37 Rademaker, Abraham – nos. 49-50 Savery, Roelandt – no. 18 Schut, Cornelis – no. 31 Swart van Groningen, Jan (follower of ) – no. 5 Sychem, Pieter van – no. 47 Teniers, David II – no. 27 Thulden, Theodoor van – no. 30 Trotti, Giovanni Battista (or workshop) – no. 8 Ubeleski, Alexandre – no. 44 Valck, Gerard (circle of ) – no. 46 Verbruggen, Pieter II (attributed to) – no. 35 Verbrugghen, Hendrik Frans – no. 36 Vos, Maerten de – no. 15 Wandelaar, Jan – no. 48 Zuccari, Federico – no. 9158 44 30 170 220 90 144 40 210 128 140 52 196 204 162 166 74 214 56Watermarks Bibliography Colophon Photograph credits226 230 238 239With contributions by Stijn Alsteens, Ellen Bakker, Yvonne Bleyerveld, Till-Holger Borchert, Jean-Claude Boyer, Hans Buijs, Dominique Cordellier, Julie Daems, Heleen De Smet, Evelien de Wilde, Virginie D’haene, Charles Dumas, Peter Fuhring, Stefaan Hautekeete, Margret Klinge, Marjolein Leesberg, John Marciari, Maja Neerman, Julie Rooryck, Kristel Van Audenaeren, Anne van Oosterwijk, Sarah Van Ooteghem5Foreword Musea Brugge places high value on increasing the understanding of its varied collections and disseminating this knowledge through exhibitions, scholarly conferences and publications such as this catalogue. Since 2012, the Bruges Print Room has been systematically investigating and digitising its varied collection in order to garner more knowledge and to make its contents accessible to the public. Recent presentations such as The Seventeenth Century as Seen through the Eyes of Jacques Callot (2013); Virtuoso Mannerism. Prints by Hendrick Goltzius and His Contemporaries from the Groeningemuseum (2014) and ImPRESSive. New highlights from the Bruges Print Room (2015–16) have showcased the diversity and quality of our holdings while also piquing the public’s interest in the collection of works on paper found in Bruges. Currently consisting of approximately 20,000 works, the foundation of the Bruges Print Room is the major donation by John Steinmetz in 1864 of his collection of prints and drawings to the City of Bruges. The initial Steinmetz gift of approximately 14,000 prints and 1,000 drawings has, over the years, been augmented by subsequent donations and purchases, such as, most recently in 2014, the important acquisition of prints from the Bruges-based print dealer and collector Guy Van Hoorebeke. The Bruges Print Room includes a wide array of works on paper from the 15th through the 20th century, 4,000 of them drawings. About 3,000 drawings were catalogued in 1984 by the late Carl Van de Velde in his two volume catalogue, Stedelijke Musea Brugge. Steinmetzkabinet. Catalogus van de tekeningen. Still the most complete reference work of the drawings in the Print Room, Van de Velde’s publication is an impressive display of the author’s extraordinary knowledge as an art historian and a source of inspiration for younger scholars. Unfortunately, the publication is not widely known, however, as its brief descriptions are currently only available in Dutch. While most of his attributions remain accurate, his findings have become outdated in several cases. Thirty-five years after Van de Velde’s catalogue was printed, ongoing research has led to new attributions as well to the identification of hitherto unknown subjects of a number of drawings. The most relevant of these new findings are included in the present volume, which highlights a selection of fifty of the most relevant and most beautiful drawings from the 16th through the early 18th centuries in the Bruges Print Room.6This project was initiated by the Flemish research centre for the arts of the Burgundian Netherlands, whose mission is to initiate, stimulate, facilitate and disseminate research related to the arts, history and culture of the Burgundian Netherlands. Virginie D’haene started the reinvestigation of the drawings during her tenure as Assistant-Curator of the Print Room in Bruges and as a staff member of our Flemish research centre. We would like to congratulate her on her work as an accomplished scholar of drawings and thank her for her enthusiasm and unwavering dedication to this project, which continued on even after her professional transition to the Museum Plantin-Moretus in Antwerp in early 2018. We also would like to express our sincere gratitude to the members of our scholarly advisory board – distinguished scholars from museums, universities and the art market – as well as all other contributors for sharing their invaluable expertise. Of all the colleagues at Musea Brugge who deserve our thanks, we would like to single out Evelien de Wilde, Anne van Oosterwijk and Geneviève Callewaert for organising and facilitating the exhibition that is mounted in the Arentshuis on the occasion of this catalogue. Special thanks go to Vanessa Paumen for the coordination of the catalogue and her critical reading of all entries. We are grateful to Lannoo Publishers for their diligent work. While this catalogue was in its editing phase, we were saddened to learn about the death of Professor Carl Van de Velde. We would like to dedicate this volume to his memory, with gratitude.Dirk De fauw Mayor City of Bruges7Nico Blontrock Alderman for Culture City of BrugesTill-Holger Borchert Director Musea BruggeIntroduction to the catalogue This catalogue features a selection of artworks consisting of the fifty most extraordinary 16th- to early 18th-century European drawings from Musea Brugge’s Print Room collection. This selection primarily concerns sheets by notable artists from the Low Countries; however, some Italian, French and German masters are also represented. Every sheet is significant in its own right and until now was relatively unknown. The old master drawings of the Print Room in Bruges come almost exclusively from a donation made by John Steinmetz in 1864. The drawings comprise a relatively small collection that is nonetheless quite diverse in terms of school, technique and function. In addition to a few well-known names such as Jacques Callot, Frans Floris and Govert Flinck, rare key works by lesser-known draughtsmen such as Jan van Mieris, Johan van Lintelo, Theodoor van Thulden and Louis de Deyster form the collection’s main assets. Despite its limited size, the collection – with its amalgam of techniques, formats, functions, styles and wide variety of subjects – is an excellent illustration of the varied uses to which the medium of drawing was put from the 16th to the early 18th centuries. The appearance of this catalogue in 2019 marks exactly thirty-five years since the publication of the first catalogue of the Bruges drawings collection. In 1984, Carl Van de Velde mapped out the complete collection of drawings of the Print Room of Musea Brugge – comprising some 3,000 sheets.1 With its concise yet secure descriptions, this catalogue was until recently the definitive reference work for this collection. However, new research in recent years has yielded a great deal of additional knowledge about the collection of old master drawings. Fifteen drawings2 included in the catalogue received new attributions: seven previously anonymous drawings were identified, with the most spectacular find being a rare stained-glass cartoon by Theodoor van Thulden (no. 30); five drawings could be assigned to a different artist than was previously thought – amongst which only the new attribution to Anthonie Crussens (no. 19) had already been published elsewhere – and, finally, the attributions of four drawings were somewhat adjusted. The latter8I N T RO D U C T I O Nworks were more likely to have come from the studio or circle of the artist to whom they had previously been attributed, whereas the sheet that was only tentatively attributed to Pierre Mignard in the past (no. 34) could now be assigned to him with confidence. Iconographic puzzles were resolved; the iconography of other subjects was fine-tuned or explored in more depth and, for still other drawings, new iconographic interpretations were carefully formulated.3 Finally, for many drawings, better insight was gained into their possible function and original context. In other words, there turned out to be more than enough material for a new, more in-depth and completely up-to-date publication on the collection of old master drawings. With its new status quaestionis, this catalogue contributes to our knowledge of draughtsmen and drawing practices from the 16th to the early 18th centuries. However, this study is not intended to be the final word on the subject – rather, it is an intermediate stage in an ongoing research process. Future research will confirm or refute the interpretations made here and perhaps shed further light on the many issues that remain to be resolved.John Steinmetz, a Chance Collector of Drawings30. Theodoor van Thulden, Head of a Shepherd (?)With five exceptions, all of the selected drawings come from the sizeable gift made by John Steinmetz (1795–1883) in 1864, which today continues to form the basis of the Bruges Print Room.4 In 1819, Steinmetz, a British banker’s son, settled in Bruges, where he built up an extensive print collection over the years. He seemed particularly interested in the reproductive aspect of the medium and his collection was intended – according to his own words – to provide an overview of Western art history, which he arranged chronologically and by artistic school. He acquired his prints mainly at auctions and from art dealers in Bruges and Ghent, but also elsewhere in Belgium, or while travelling abroad. Occasionally, he also purchased drawings. As such, his 14,000 to 17,000 prints are complemented by a mere thousand or so drawings by comparison.5 The large number of Neoclassicist drawings by contemporary Bruges artists in this collection – some 450 sheets – is striking.6 These drawings include works by Joseph Benoît Suvée (1743–1807), Joseph Ducq (1762–1829), Joseph Denis Odevaere (1775–1830), Jan Frans Legillon (1739–1797) and Albert Gregorius (1774–1853) – artists who were educated at the Bruges academy and went on to develop an international career. Steinmetz bought many of these drawings at the estate auctions of some of these artists. Steinmetz also assembled a smaller yet significant collection of European old master drawings. Although he kept his annotated auction catalogues and sometimes used inscriptions on the backs of the works to keep track of where and from whom he had acquired them, we only know about their provenance to a limited extent. This lacuna of information can be at least partly explained by9I N T RO D U C T I O N15. Maerten de Vos, Transfiguration, 1578the fact that Steinmetz regularly bought these drawings in bulk lots. At the auction of the estate of the Ghent surgeon Frans Bernard van Coppenole (1777–1824) on 7 February 1825, for example, he bought at least 230 drawings, of which only five could be identified – amongst them the Transfiguration by Maerten de Vos (no. 15).7 He bought the other drawings in lots with descriptions such as Vingt dessins par differents Maîtres (Twenty drawings by different Masters) or Neuf dito (Nine, ditto). At the auction of Charles Van Hulthem’s collection on 8–22 June 1846, one of the most important print and drawing auctions in Belgium in the 19th century, Steinmetz acquired some forty drawings. In addition to several bulk lots, he also bought identified drawings, including the sheets by Govert Flinck (no. 28) and Abraham Rademaker (nos. 49 and 50). Through Steinmetz’s inscription V.H. on the back of the mountings, other drawings from this auction could also be traced, such as the (still) anonymous Two Niches with a Caryatid and Female Term Figures (no. 7). His annotated auction catalogue shows that Steinmetz paid low prices for the drawings he bought at this auction – even less than for several of the prints he bought there. It therefore seems likely that Steinmetz acquired his drawings mainly as an addition to his overview of Western art history based upon prints.More Recent Acquisitions Five drawings (nos. 10, 13, 31, 35 and 47) from the selection do not come from the Steinmetz donation.8 Three of them are the result of the Print Room’s intensified acquisitions’ policy in recent years – a good example being the acquisition of Guy Van Hoorebeke’s collection in 2014, comprising more than 2,000 prints.9 In 2014, and very recently in the autumn of 2018, two unknown sheets from private collections (nos. 10 and 13) from the Story of Esther by the Italian draughtsman Giovanni Guerra were acquired at auction from Christie’s and Dorotheum respectively, becoming an addition to the two drawings from the same series that were already in the collection. Again in 2014 – and this is the most beautiful recently acquired old master drawing – the Parisian gallery Laura Pecheur donated a sheet by Cornelis Schut (no. 31), which comes from the artist’s large studio stock, part of which was auctioned in Paris in 2010. The collection’s first drawing by Schut (not included in the catalogue), a sheet related to Schut’s painting The Coronation of the Virgin in the Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-ter-Potterie church in Bruges, was acquired at that auction.10I N T RO D U C T I O NKey Works by Little-known Draughtsmen Steinmetz’s irregular acquisition of old master drawings produced a small, atypical collection that varies in quality and is highly diverse in terms of school, technique and function. As noted earlier, in addition to a few prominent names such as Jacques Callot, Frans Floris or Govert Flinck, its main assets consist of a few rare, key works by lesser-known draughtsmen.42. Jan van Mieris, Inquiry Uplifts Science, c. 1685Amongst the highlights is Inquiry Uplifts Science by Jan van Mieris (no. 42), made in preparation for his signed painting in Leiden, which is the key work for the reconstruction of the artist’s drawn oeuvre, a limited corpus comprising only twelve works.10 The relatively unknown artists Johan van Lintelo and Louis de Deyster, by whom only a very few drawings are known – and for the latter, only a handful – are both represented by a key work (nos. 24 and 41): respectively a signed and dated early sheet, and a drawing that can be linked to both a print and a painting by the artist. The Print Room also holds a preparatory study by the French court painter Pierre Mignard (no. 34) for the figure of Apollo in the eponymous gallery of the no longer extant Château de Saint-Cloud, which the artist painted for Philippe d’Orléans, brother of Louis XIV. It is a drawing that offers us a unique insight into the artist’s remarkable workshop practices. The fragment of a cartoon (no. 30) by Theodoor van Thulden, mentioned above, offers rare evidence of the artist’s activity as a designer of stained glass. To this can be added rare, early drawings by Maerten de Vos (no. 15) and Roelandt Savery (no. 18), an exceptionally fine Lambert van Noort (no. 6) and a particularly lively drawing by David II Teniers (no. 27) – which, according to Pierre-Jean Mariette, was already a rarity in the 18th century.Drawing as the Father of All Arts The collection’s other great advantage is that, despite its limited size, it illustrates quite well the great wealth of the drawing medium, with its admixture of techniques, formats, functions, styles and diverse subjects. Drawing – being the true ‘father of all arts’ 11 – emerges as the most essential part (and trace) of the artist’s creative process in producing nearly every kind of artwork. The range of works includes: designs drawn with a brush or in pen, red or black chalk on a pale, blue or grounded paper, for paintings, altarpieces, murals and ceiling paintings, and miniatures; designs for all types of printed matter – to be executed in various graphic techniques – from prints for allegorical or religious series to book illustrations and prints for offering and wedding occasions; designs related to the production of stained glass; and finally designs for objects in gold or silver. In addition, there are also a few drawings that were probably never intended as preparation for a work of art in another medium, but rather as works of art in their own right – known as presentation drawings. Finally, several studio drawings and copies were also included in the catalogue. They not only grant us valuable insights into the studio practices of artists from the 16th to the early 18th centuries, but are also unique ricordi of artworks no longer known to us today.11I N T RO D U C T I O NRecords of the Artist’s Creative Process The works in the catalogue illustrate the artist’s quest, from collecting the first ideas and motifs on paper to making several composition studies to drawing up the final design for the artwork. Collecting Ideas and Motifs on Paper Ideas and motifs were often collected by copying other works of art, from prints, paintings and sculptures to other drawings. A prime example is Studies after Antique Sculptures by Frans Floris (no. 2), a testament to the sculptures from classical antiquity that the artist saw during his Roman sojourn and recorded on paper in order to incorporate them into new, ‘modern’ compositions when he returned to the Netherlands. Artists also collected motifs by drawing from life. The anonymous draughtsman of Figure Studies (no. 26) presumably installed himself near a market, sketchbook in hand, while Teniers sketched the activities of a brickmaker (no. 27) – which he then deployed in his painting without further adjustments. Both sheets have a sketchbook format, but artists also made larger figure studies, as the sheets by Flinck (no. 28) and the circle of Furini (no. 29) attest. Figure studies and copies like these were used not only to create an image database of sorts (with or without a specific project in mind) but also as a way of exercising the hand.2. Frans Floris, Studies after Antique Sculptures, c. 1540–45Motifs were used and reused. The position of the compositions by Louis de Deyster (no. 41) and Alexandre Ubeleski (no. 44) in their broader oeuvre shows how these artists frequently played with the same motifs and forms. Pierre Mignard’s Study of Apollo or John the Baptist (no. 34) presents a clear case of reappropriation: the artist later transformed his study for the god Apollo in the Apollo Gallery of the Château de Saint-Cloud into the figure of John the Baptist. He did so by lightly erasing the lyre and pressing into his hand a staff with a banderole for the inscription Ecce agnus dei (Behold the lamb of God) as well as adding a lamb and water flask to the composition. Composition Studies Most of the drawings included in the catalogue are composition
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