English Phonology - 03-Manners of Articulation

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1. English Phonology Structure of Language 2. 1. m 2. n 3. ŋ 4. p 5. b 6. t 7. d 8. k 9. g 10. f v θ ð h s z ∫ ʒ w r j l t∫ dʒ Let’s play a game! ã Finda…
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  • 1. English Phonology Structure of Language
  • 2. 1. m 2. n 3. ŋ 4. p 5. b 6. t 7. d 8. k 9. g 10. f v θ ð h s z ∫ ʒ w r j l t∫ dʒ Let’s play a game! • Finda partner • Standbackto back • Use one hand,andprepare your finger(s). • On three,you jump, facingyour partner. • Quickly countthetotalnumber of your fingers plus your friend’s. • Look atthenumber  andfind the corresponding consonant.And choose one. • As quickly aspossible, saya wordwhichhas oneof thecorresponding sound. • Who is faster?
  • 3. Manners of Articulation Structure of Language
  • 4. Manners of Articulation • howthey are articulated • the way the airstreamis affectedas it flows • whether or notthe vocalcords vibrate
  • 5. Voiced vs Voiceless • voiced = vocal cords are together; the airstream forces its way through and causes them to vibrate • voiceless = vocal cords are apart so that air flows freely through the glottis into the oral cavity
  • 6. Which one is +V? Which one is –V? [p] [t] [g] [θ] [b] [d] [k] [ð] [v] [s] [ʃ] [tʃ] [f] [z] [ʒ] [d ʒ]
  • 7. -V +V Bilabial p b m w Labiodental f v (Inter)dental θ ð Alveolar t s d z n l r Palatal ʃ tʃ ʒ dʒ j Velar k g ŋ Glottal h
  • 8. Manners of Articulation • howthey are articulated • the way the airstreamis affectedas it flows • whether or notthe vocalcords vibrate
  • 9. Manners of Articulation 1. Stops 2. Fricatives 3. Affricates 4. Approximants
  • 10. Stops, or a ‘plosive’ • consonants;the airstreamis completelyblockedin the oralcavity fora short period,releasedwith a burst of air.
  • 11. Stops, or a ‘plosive’ Bilabial stops [p] [b] [m] Alveolar stops [t] [d] [n] Velar stops [k] [g] [ŋ] Palatal stops [tʃ] [dʒ]
  • 12. [p] vs [b] [b] vs [m]
  • 13. Nasal and Oral Sounds • Oralsounds =velumgoes up, blocking the air from escapingthrough the nose • Nasalsounds = velumdoes notraise, air escapesthrough both nose and mouth
  • 14. Stops, or a ‘plosive’ Oral Nasal Voiced b d g m n ŋ Voiceless p t k
  • 15. Fricatives • the airflow isso severelyobstructed, almost blockedand pushedthrough theverynarrow opening,causing friction
  • 16. Fricatives Labiodental frict’s [f] [v] (Inter)dental frict’s [θ] [ð] Alveolar frict’s [s] [z] Palatal frict’s [ʃ] [ʒ] Glottal frict’s [h]
  • 17. Fricatives • sibilant (hissing) [s] [z] [ʃ] [ʒ] • non-sibilant [f] [v] [θ] [ð] [h]
  • 18. Affricates • a briefstopping (stop) of the air stream,followedwith gradual, obstructedreleasecausing some friction (fricative)
  • 19. Affricates (Alveo)palatal- affrics. [tʃ] [dʒ]
  • 20. Approximants • airstream partiallyhindered,the articulatorsapproximatea frictional closeness,withoutactualfriction
  • 21. Approximants Lateral approximants [l] Central approximants [w] [j] [r]
  • 22. PLACESOF ARTICULATION Bilabial Labiodental Interdental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal -v +v -v +v -v +v -v +v -v +v -v +v -v +v MANNERSOFARTICULATION Stop Nasal m n ŋ Oral p b t d k g Fricative Sibilant s z ʃ ʒ h Non-sibilant f v θ ð Affricate tʃ dʒ Approximant Central w r j w Lateral l
  • 23. Naming a Consonant Structure of Language
  • 24. Distinguishing a Consonant • voicing,nasality,and place-and- mannerof articulation
  • 25. Distinguishing a Consonant 1. Vocal cords voiceless voiced 2. Lateral/central 3. Nasality oral nasal 4. Place ofartc. bilabial, dental, … 5. Manner of artc. stop, fricative, … e.g. [p] voiceless,central, (oral), bilabialstop
  • 26. Distinguishing a Consonant 1. Vocal cords voiceless voiced 2. Lateral/central 3. Nasality oral nasal 4. Place ofartc. bilabial, dental, … 5. Manner of artc. stop, fricative, … e.g. [ŋ] voiced, central,nasal,velar stop
  • 27. 1. [m] voiced, central, nasal, bilabial stop 2. [l] voiced, lateral, oral, alveolar approximant 3. [r] voiced, central, oral, alveolar approximant 4. [t] voiceless, central, oral, alveolar stop 5. [b] voiced, central, oral, bilabial stop 6. [θ] voiceless, central, oral, dental fricative 7. [k] voiceless, central, oral, velar stop 8. [ʃ] voiceless, central, oral, palatal fricative 9. [ð] voiced, central, oral, dental fricative 10. [dʒ] voiced, central, oral, palatal affricate 11. [v] voiced, central, oral, labio-dental fricative 12. [s] voiceless, central, oral, alveolar fricative 13. [ʒ] voiced, central, oral, palatal fricative 14. [h] voiceless, central, oral, glottal fricative 15. [j] voiced, central, oral, palatal approximant 16. [n] voiced, central, nasal, alveolar stop +v -v lateral central oral nasal bilabial labio-dental dental alveolar palatal velar glottal stop fricative affricate approxi-mant
  • 28. Distinguishing a Consonant Actually, you don’t have to mentionoral all thetime, but nasal should be named. Also, ‘central’ does not have to be mentioned,as we only have one lateral [l] sound in English.
  • 29. References • Finegan, E. (2008).Language:ItsStructureandUse,5th Edition. • Yule,G. (2010).TheStudyofLanguage,FourthEdition. • Fromkin,V., Rodman, R., & Hyams, N. (2009).An IntroductiontoLanguage,9th Edition.
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